Skal Canada Vancouver

NEXT MEETING   TBA

Wednesday January 10, 2018
Frankie’s Jazz Club at  the Georgian Court Hotel.

765 Beatty St, Vancouver

December Minutes 2017

General Meeting Minutes

December 13 th Arbutus Club Annual Christmas Lunch

Greg Moon, President chaired the meeting

Check-in Team: David and Michael
Raffle: Richard and Ron

Toast to Queen: Greg Moon
SKAL Toast: Brian Veitch

December Birthdays: Karim-Randy- Angus-Darren- Steve Chen-Ayako-

Harvey informed the membership that nominations for the 2017 annual Tourism Award are now closed. The winner is the Vancouver Convention Centre, Ken Cretney will receive the award at our March 14 Skal Dinner. The event will be held at the Convention Centre.

Inductions: Brianne Kelly Young Skal was inducted by Greg Moon and Altan.
Welcome Brianne to our Club.

Guests: —Altan, has a guest
Sunita Anastasios has 3 guests,
Joanna/Demi/and Miriam
Randy Vanatter has a guest Rick Fisher
Beth Walters has a Guest Brian.
Doris Hager’s guest is her head Designer.
Shamir has a guest Robert Lewis
Ron has a guest Donna Hawrelko
Welcome to all Guests.

Draw Prizes – Richard –Ron and Randy
Grand Prize Draw Harvey and Randy

The Grand Prize winners from January to December 2017 were called forward. Randy controlled the cards. The one having the ace of hearts will win the $2500 in cash. Playing cards were distributed to each monthly winner.
The winner is Joyce Hayne..congratulations. Well done.
For those members who did not attend the lunch. We had a stand in for you.

Wines and other prizes:
Bottle of Champagne-Doris Hager
Wine with an aerator and another bottle of wine– -Randy
Wine Mark Elliott
Wine-Doris Hager
Wine-Gary Collinge
Wine-Donna Kawrelko
Wine-Robert Lewis
Wine two bottles—Rudolf
Wine- Shamir
Starbucks package-Gordon Z.
Sushi set—Rick Fisher
Snowman lighted set—Gordon Z
Congratulations to all the winners.

Harvey thanked the Arbutus Club Management and Staff for a fantastic Buffett and excellent service. All Club members stood and applauded.

Upcoming Meeting: January 10 th Frankie’s Jazz Club at the Georgian Court Hotel.
This will also be our Annual General Meeting.

Meeting Adjourned.
By Mr. Moon wished everyone a Merry Christmas and a
Happy New Year.

November Minutes 2017

General Meeting Minutes
November 8 th Glowbal on Georgia Street, Telus building

Greg Moon, President Chaired the meeting

Check-in Team: David and Fikriye
Raffle: Steven Chen and Richard Purcell

Toast to Queen: Steven Chen
SKAL Toast: Brian Veitch

November Birthday: Ron Waterhouse

Greg presented the Certificate to recognize Altan as the Young Skal of the Year.
Greg discussed the upcoming AGM which will be on January 10 th Frankies Jazz Club. At the Georgian Court Hotel,Lisa’s hotel.

Harvey informed the membership that nominations for the annual Tourism Award are now closed. The winner will be announced at the January Dinner meeting.

Inductions: Stephen Peters, Michael Kaile introduced. Well done. Karim Mohammadi was introduced by Altan as a Young Skal Member. Congratulations to all and Welcome to the Club

Guests:  Jason Bryant has a guest Clayton Watson owner of Vancouver Water Adventures
Richard Purcell has a guest Eric Sakawsky
Altan has 2 guests Nazmi Kamal,Instructor from Capilano University-School of Tourism and Outdoor
Recreation and Sunita Gelhan, Director of Operations Chateau Granville Hotel
Michael Kale introduced his guest –Peter Finamore
Welcome to all Guests.

Draw Prizes – Steven Chen and Richard

$ 2500.00 Cash Grand Prize
to be drawn at the 2017 Dec. Skal Christmas lunch
Joyce Hayne
Phil Storie
Dave Stevens
Congratulation’s to the winners of the Grand Prize Draw

Wines and other prizes:
$100 Gift Certificate from Glowbal—Karim
Wine—Karim
Wine –Lisa Jackson
Wine—Brian Veitch
Wine– Harvey

Congratulations to all the winners of the wine and other great prizes.

On behalf of the Club, Steve Halliday brought forward the staff and
Management thanking them for an excellent meal and service. Standing Ovation. Steve thanked the Executive Vancouver Skal Club for having an improvement in the venues and food, well done.

Upcoming Meeting:
December 13 Christmas Lunch
at the Arbutus Club 11am
Please be reminded the $2500 cash prize will be drawn.

October Minutes 2017

October 11th, Vancouver Lawn and Tennis Club

Greg Moon, President chaired the meeting

Check-in Team: David and Fikriye
Raffle: Steven Chen and Richard Purcell

Toast to Queen: Harvey Lee
SKAL Toast: Ivan0

October Birthdays: Tim Tindle and Kevin Woolliams

Young Skal
This evening we have 9 Young Skal Club Members from Japan.
Our Vancouver Skal members Mark Elliott Program Chair Hospitality Management from Douglas College and Altan Young Skal Vancouver have prepared the agenda.
This event was well received.
For details and pictures please go to the Young Skal Vancouver website

On behalf of the Vancouver Club,-thank you- this will be
remembered for years.

President Greg advised at the upcoming AGM in February we will be needed to fill Board Positions. If Interested please contact Greg or David.

Young Skal .
At the Skal Gala dinner, Altan received the Award for Young Skal of the Year this was a Global Award. President Sean accepted for Altan. Congratulations from all of us Altan, well done.

Bill Rowe Memorial Tourism Award for 2017

Harvey addressed the upcoming nominations required for the Bill Rowe Memorial Tourism Award for 2017. This is given to a Local individual,corporation or organisation that has significantly contributed to the success and growth of the Tourism Industry in Vancouver and British Columbia.

Nomination form

Ivano updated the club, Skal Canada will be having the Board Meeting in November of 2018. No location has been chosen; The Vancouver Club is considering hosting. We would require 20 guest rooms. Any of our members that our hoteliers please contact Ivano before October 20 th . We need to submit to Skal Canada by November 2 nd

We did recognize Erden Duygu, Secretary of the Skal Club of Izmir Turkey.

Michael, informed us he worked at the Vancouver Lawn and Tennis club for two years and knows many of the staff working this evening. His Grandfather ran the Pro Shop for a number of Years. Great information.

Guests:
Valentina’s guest is Vince Smith
Mark Elliott has 9 guests Young Skal Japan:
Scott Johnston guest is, Chris Perna GM Hilton Hotel Burnaby
David Wetsch has two guests, Rich Eichler from Calgary and Reuben Mace from Britiany Beach
Altan has a guest, Karim Mohammadi Fairmont Pacific Hotel
Erden Duygu Secretary of the Izmir Club of Turkey
Welcome to all Guests.

Draw Prizes – Steven Chen and Richard

$ 2500.00 Cash Grand Prize to be drawn at the 2017 Dec.Skal Christmas lunch Eda Koot, Joyce Hayne and Karim Mohammadi

Congratulation’s to the winners of the Grand Prize Draw

Wines and other prizes:
Wine Aerator- Angus
Titleist Pro V1 Golf Balls- Gordon Chatry
Pasta Fork, Ivano
Wine- Steven Chen
Wine- FIkriye
Wine-Eda Koot
Wine-Gordon Chatry

Congratulations to all the winners of the wine and other great prizes.

On behalf of the Club, Michael thanked the Vancouver Lawn and Tennis Club. Fantastic meal and service. Thank you all.

New Business:
December 13 th at 11:30am we will all meet at the Arbutus
Club for our Annual Christmas Lunch. We are in full support of the
Christmas Bureau, please bring unwrapped toys or plan to give a cash donation. Mark your calendar and see you there.

Upcoming Meeting:
November 8th Glowbal Restaurant 590 West Georgia base of
the new Telus building.

Meeting Adjourned.

September Minutes 2017

General Meeting Minutes

September 13, Kobe Japanese Steak House

Greg Moon, President Chaired the meeting

Check-in Team: David and Fikriye
Raffle: Steven Chen and Richard Purcell

Toast to Queen: Sandy Dexter
SKAL Toast: Craig Norris-Jones

September Birthdays: Abdul Walli, Eda Koot, Jeffery Stewart, Mark Elliott, and Dave Stevens

Inductions: Juan Duran (Angus) Well Done Angus. Juan welcome to the Club.

Guests:
Altan has a guest, Mr. Watts, GM of the Chateau Granville, and Karim Mohammedi Fairmont Pacific Rim.
Valentina’s guest is Vince Smith

Welcome to all Guests and we all do hope one day you will become a Vancouver Skal Member

Craig Norris-Jones announced he would be leaving the Club. Retiring from the Pan Pacific and moving to the Okanagan. We all congratulated Craig and thanked him for being a loyal member of the Vancouver Skal Club.

Draw Prizes – Steven Chen and Richard

$ 2500.00 Cash Grand Prize to be drawn at the 2017 Dec. Skal Christmas lunch

Rudolf Tize,  Brian Veitch,  Joyce Hayne

Congratulation’s to the winners of the Grand Prize Draw

Wines:
Steven Chen – 2 bottles of wine
James Chase – wine and champagne glasses
Mr. Watt – (GM Chateau Granville) Chop Sticks and Sake
Jonas Melin – 2 bottles of wine
Joyce Hayne – Claude Monets Secret Garden Showing at the Vancouver Art Gallery, 2 tickets given to the club by Randy Vannatter
Brian Veitch – $50.00 gift certificate from Kobe…

Congratulations to all the winners of the wine and other great prizes.

On behalf of the Club, Michael thanked Russell and the entire team at Kobe for a job well done. The food and service was fantastic. Ron, thank you for setting up the event.

Upcoming Meetings: October 11 th , Vancouver Lawn and Tennis Club

June Minutes 2017

Ron Groves Golf Day
Friday June 16, 2017

GOLF & PRIZE WINNERS 2017

GOLF – MEMBERS ONLY

SKAL MENS LOW GROSS Brian Veitch
SKAL WOMENS LOW GROSS Lauren Veitch

GOLF OPEN WINNERS

MENS LOW NET Connor Veitch
WOMENS LOW NET Shauna Cooper
MENS KP #11 Harvey Lee
WOMENS KP #3 Gwen Donaldson
OPEN KP #16 Kevin Woolliams
MENS LONG DRIVE # 5 Darren Simpson
WOMENS LONG DRIVE # 13 Kim Russell
STRAIGHTEST DRIVE #4 Ken Ross
PUTTING Randy Vannatter
TEXAS SCRAMBLE WINNERS
Ron Waterhouse, Rick Dean, Ken Ross, Leigh Cussak

PRIZE WINNERS

SERTA DOOR PRIZE Lauren Veitch
CHRISTMAS RAFFLE PRIZE
Winner 1 Joyce Hayne
Winner 2 Dave Stevens
Winner 3 Joyce Hayne

May Minutes 2017

General Minutes

Wed May 10, 2017
Coast Plaza Hotel

Michael Favelle will be the MC, as our President Greg cannot attend.

Check-in Team: David and Fikriye
Raffle: Ron and Steven Chen
Toast to Queen: Gordon Chatry
SKAL Toast: Richard Purcell

May Birthdays : Brian Rohl, Richard Purcell, Gordon Chatry,Doris Hager and Altan.

Inductions: Kevin Woolliams (Morgan Chatry) Matt Taylor Young Skal(Altan) Dave Stevens (Michael Kaile) Great inductions.
Welcome to the Vancouver Skal Club.

Guests: Altan has a guest, Mr. Watts, GM of the Chateau Granville, Linda Hagen has a guest, Suzanne Bidinost,
Welcome to all Guests and we all do hope one day you will become a Vancouver

Skal Member. Michael Favelle
did a power point presentation on Social Media and where the Vancouver Skal Club needs to improve. Great presentation and we all together will improve our usage of Social Media.

Draw Prizes – Ron and Steven Chen
$ 2500.00 Cash Prize drawn at the 2017 Dec. Skal Christmas lunch
Steve Halliday
Shamir Shivji
Beth Walters
Congratulation’s to the winners of the Grand Prize Draw

Wines:
Gordon Chatry
Craig Norris-Jones
Steven Chen
The quality of wines is note worthy

Thanks to Linda Hagen and her Team. Brian Veitch. A fantastic dinner and the service was first Class. Well done.

National Raffle
Ivano updated the membership we have over $30,000 in prizes please support the National Raffle and purchase your tickets tonight the draw will be held on June 17 at the Skal Canada meeting. Ivano, Angus, and Altan will be attending. Thanks for the update Ivano. Good Luck to all who purchased tickets.

Upcoming Meetings:

June 16 th Annual Ron Groves Golf Tournament, dinner and Silent Auction at UBC Golf and Country Club. More info go to the Vancouver Skal website for full details.

September 13 th , location to be announced

Thank you Michael for chairing our meeting tonight, well done.

Meeting Adjourned.

April Minutes 2017

General Minutes
Wed April 12th,

THE FRENCH TABLE at 3916 Main St Vancouver

Check-in Team: David and Fikriye
Raffle: Michael Favelle and Steven Chen
Toast to Queen: Richard Purcell
SKAL Toast: Michael Favelle

April Birthdays :
Michael Kaile, Jonas Melin, Paul Wechselberger, Craig Norris-Jones, and Anastasios .
Each member presented with a Scratch and Win
Good luck to all.

Inductions:
Young Skal Altan and Greg to introduced Ayako to the membership. Welcome Ayako.
Joyce Hayne and Greg inducted Jeffery Stewart . Joyce gave an informative overview of Jeffery. A sincere

Welcome was given to both by President Greg Moon.

2016 Bill Rowe Tourism Award .
Ty Speers,President and CEO of Tourism Vancouver was Welcomed by Harvey and Greg.
Harvey did a preview of previous winners and did a bio overview of Ty Speers and Tourism Vancouver. Greg presented the outstanding award to Tourism Vancouver’s Info.Centre.
Ty accepted and was humbled by the Award, he will have a meeting of the supervisors and volunteers at the Info.Centre and will proudly acknowledge them for a job well done.
Thank you Ty and hope to see you and some upcoming meetings.

Guests:
Juan Pablo Duran Director of Membership Development Ascend Hotel Collection Choice Hotels Canada Guest of David Wetsch. Matt Taylor Rocky Mountaineer Team Leader of Guest Experience, Guest of Altan, Kent Hull, guest of Morgan. Michael Kaile introduce his guest, Philipp Posh General Manager of the Trump International Hotel and Tower Vancouver

Welcome to all Guests and we all do hope one day you will become a Vancouver

Skal Member.
Young Skal attending: Altan introduced all Young Skal members attending this meeting.

Welcome Young Skal all attending acknowledged

Draw Prizes
Michael Favelle and Steven Chen

$ 2500.00 Cash Grand Prize to be drawn at the 2017 Dec.Skal Christmas lunch

Gordon Chatry, Harvey Lee, and Ivano

Wines  two bottles,  Brian Rohl
The French Table gift certificate $50.00 winner Mark Elliott

Congrats to all winners.

Thanks to the French Table:Michael Kaile thanked Herve and his team for an outstanding meal and service. Standing ovation by the Vancouver Skal Club.

Upcoming Meetings:

May 10 th Coast Plaza Hotel (notice to be sent by April 22 nd )

June 16 th UBC for Golf and dinner event.

September 13 th , location to be announced

President Greg, advised Michael Favelle will do a Social Media Presentation at the May 10 th meeting.

Ivano, spoke to the National Raffle, over $30,000 in Prizes,( see below)  for tickets please see Ivano.

Meeting Adjourned.

March Minutes 2017

General Minutes March 8, 2017
The Gateway Hotel at the airport in Richmond

Check-in Team: David and Fikriye
Raffle: Ron and Ivano
Toast to Queen: Morgan Chatry
SKAL Toast: Jim Storie

March Birthdays :
Scott Johnson, Rudolf Tize, Bill Whyte, Joyce Hayne, Lisa
Jackson Those in attendance received Lotto Tickets, good luck.

Inductions:
Jason Bryant was introduced by Randy Vannatter,well done Randy.
Fikriye Topkaya(Young Skal) was introduced by Altan. On Behalf of the Club, congratulations and welcome aboard.

2016 Tourism Award Tourism
Vancouver’s Info Centre. Ty Speers the CEO will receive the award at the April 12th dinner meeting.

Guests:
David Wetsch has two guests, Keith Tsukishima of Inntegrated Hospitality and Dave Stevens GM of the Days Inn Vancouver Downtown.
Morgan Chatry introduced Kevin Wooliams.
Altan introduced Stephanie Wells Capilano University
Mark Elliott introduced his guest Michael Tittle, Vancouver Community College, Head of the Tourism Management Division. Steve Halliday introduced a seasoned hotelier, Nejat Sarp.
James Storie introduced his guest Lorne Richard.
Angus introduced his two Guests Harold Kurtzke and his beautiful wife Joanne.

Welcome to all Guests and we all do hope one day you will become a Vancouver Skal Member.

Young Skal attending:
Altan introduced Fikriye Topkaya. Altan has a guest, Maya
Hunder McMartin Capilano University Tourism Management Program. Maya may join Young Skal.
Welcome Young Skal

Draw Prizes – Ron and Ivano

$ 2500.00 Cash Grand Prize to be drawn at the 2017 Dec.Skal Christmas Lunch

Gordon Chatry
Mark Elliott
Greg Moon

Other prize draw items and winners:
Wine Mark Elliott
Wine Greg Moon
Wine Brian Veitch
$50 Gift Certificate in Pier 73 compliments of the Gateway Airport
Hotel, Mark Elliott
Two tickets for the Vancouver Chamber Choir, Gordon Chatry

Congrats to all prize winners
Thank you to those who gave door
prizes, Randy Vannatter, Barry Director of Operations Gateway Airport Hotel and wine donors.

Thanks to the Gateway Hotel :
Gary Collinge on behalf of the Vancouver Skal Club, thanked Eda and Barry and their entire team for an outstanding dinner. The menu was excellent and all enjoyed the evening.
Again Many Thanks.

Upcoming Meetings:
Wed April 12th, THE FRENCH TABLE at 3916 Main St Vancouver
May 10th Coast Hotel on Denman Street
June 16th UBC for Golf and dinner event.

February Minutes 2017

February General Meeting Minutes 2017

Wednesday Feb 8th at the Neptune Wonton Noodle House Holiday Inn Metro town at Station Square (Year of the Rooster)

Check in Team: David and Steven
Raffle: Ron and Michael (Michael to do door prizes)
Toast to Queen: Craig Norris-Jones
SKAL Toast: Ivano Corazza

February Birthdays:
James Chase, Ivano, Denis Forristal,  Greg Moon.
Best wishes from us all.

Inductions:
President Moon introduced Dors Hager as a new member with Angus giving some history on Doris. She is the Principal of Hager Design International and does a fair amount of work with the Hotel and Restaurant Industries. Doris was presented with a certificate, skal pin and name badge. Welcome to the Club Doris.

The next induction was Mark Elliott. David advised Mark is the Hospitality Chair Travel School for Douglas College New Westminster. Mark was presented a certificate, Skal pin and a name badge. Welcome to the Club Mark.
All attending members gave a wave of approval.

President Moon advised he would be President for one more year. Michael Favelle has agreed to be the next President for years 2018 and 2019.

2016 Tourism Award Tourism Vancouver’s Info Centre. Ty Speers the CEO will receive the award at the March 8th dinner meeting. Please attend this event.

Guests:
President Moon of the Vancouver Skal Club, introduced Sean Buckland the President of Skal Canada.

Angus introduced Peter Finamore Regional VP of Fairmont Hotels and Resorts.  Atef Mankarios was also a guest of Angus.

Randy Vannatter introduced his guest Jason Bryant of West Coast Sightseeing.

Ivano introduced his guest Sandra Low. A warm Welcome to all.

Young Skal :
President Moon advised two new members have been approved by Skal International. Ayaho Kawamukai and Fikriye Topkaya. We now have 4 members in Young Skal. Congratulations Young Skal is growing in membership.

President of Skal Canada Sean Buckland.
He updated our membership on various tools being used to increase membership across Canada.
These membership tools are on the Skal Canada website. As he travels from Club to Club. He advised some Clubs are attracting new members from the Tourism Sectors, such as Tourism Vancouver, Destination BC, the BCHA, etc.

The Vancouver Club #129 is showing the most growth in Canada, keep up the good work. On Behalf of the Club, Greg thanked Sean for his comments on how to increase new membership and for attending our event tonight.

Sean enjoyed the 11-course dinner and he also commented on the positive energy within our Club.

President Greg’s final comment was to remind all Vancouver Skal members, to find new members. This is critical in 2017.

Draw Prizes

$ 2500.00 Cash Grand Prize to be drawn at the
2017 Dec. Skal Christmas Lunch

Steven Chen
Brian Rohl
Donna Hawrelko

Other prize draws
Mayne Island Resort; two-night stay the winner is Steven Chen.

$50.00 gift certificate for Neptune Wonton Noodle House the winner is Mark Elliott.

The Pinnacle Hotel Vancouver Harbour front one night stay and breakfast for 2 at p2b Bistro and Bar the winner is Brian Rohl

Selection of wines
Winners are Sandra Low, Craig Norris-Jones, and Stephen Peters
Congrats to all prize winners

On behalf of the Club Brian Rohl thanked Ken Ng (owner) and Jay Lee (Manager) and his team . The 11-course dinner and the service were outstanding.

A great start to the Year of the Rooster.

President Moon advised the upcoming dinner events and please all attend:

Wednesday March 8th
Eda’s Hotel  > The Gateway Hotel at the airport in Richmond

April 12th The French Table on Main Street

May 10th Coast Hotel on Denman Street

June 16th UBC for Golf and dinner.

January Minutes 2017

January 11th 2017
Georgian Court Hotel in Frankie’s Jazz Club

Check-in Team: David – Michael
Raffle: Ron
Toast to Queen: Angus
SKAL Toast: Randy Vannatter

January Birthdays: Norman Mastalir, David Wetsch, Steve Halliday, Trevor Scott

Inductions:

At our January dinner President Greg and David Wetsch welcomed three new members to our Vancouver Skål Club.

Eda Koot – General Manager, The Pacific Gateway Hotel in Richmond

Richard Purcell – Regional Director, Strategic Partnerships Freemen AV Canada

Paul Wechselberger – Founder of The Lifeguard Outreach Society and Great North Aquatics (Young Skal Member)

Welcome to the Vancouver Club. Each member will meet you.

2016 Tourism Award
Harvey advised the winner is Tourism Vancouver’s Info Centre. Ty Speers the CEO will receive the award at the March 8th dinner meeting.

Guests:
Stephanie Wells, Cap.University, School of Tourism Management guest of Lydia
Sandie Dexter, guest of David
Nash Qureshi guest of Angus

Young Skal
Attending are Ayako Kawaamukai BCIT Marketing: Firkrie
Toprakkaya Greystone College Customer service. Greg advised Ayako and Firkrie have submitted applications to join YS (great news) Ece AJ Sonmez BCIT Marketing and Paul Wechselberger attended tonight’s meeting. Welcome to all Young Skal.

Stephanie Wells Capilano University Tourism Management Program did speak to the Young Skal Award received in Monaco this year. Stephanie advised it was a real credit to Young Skal in receiving this prestigious award Congratulation’s to all.
The award was the Skal International Sustainable Tourism Award for our Community-Based Tourism work in Northern Vietnam. You can read the media information at http://www.capilanou.ca/tourism-management

Draw Prizes –
$ 2500.00 Cash Grand Prize to be drawn at the 2017 Dec.Skal Christmas lunch
Harvey Lee
Harvey Lee
Randy Vannatter

Other prize draw items
Darren Young. Tickets for two to attend the Chamber Choir at the Queen Elizabeth Theater (the Essence of Music.)
Shamir Shivji – good quality wine
Shamir also won a gift certificate for $100 in Frankie’s Jazz Club

Congrats to all prize winners
Thanks to Lisa Jackson Georgian Court Hotel and Frankie’s Jazz Club

Gordon Chantry thanked the entire team for a job well done, the
quality of the food and the service was outstanding. What an amazing dinner we enjoyed at Frankie’s Bar in the Georgian Court Hotel.  Thank you to our Host GM Lisa Jackson and team.  They prepared a delicious 4 course meal featuring a Rucola Salad, Gnocchi Fungi, Chicken Marsala and ended with an amazing Tiramisu!  What a way to start 2017!

Upcoming Meeting:

Wednesday Feb 8th at the Neptune Wonton Noodle House Holiday Inn Metro town at Station Square (Year of the Rooster)
Please use a Google map to locate.
Parking is free underground.

March 8th – The Gateway Hotel at the airport in Richmond

April 12th – The French Table on Main Street

May 10th – Coast Hotel on Denman Street

June 16th – UBC for Golf and dinner.